I think this topic, which is surely ON-TOPIC for a gun-carry site like Georgiapacking, needs its own thread. The question is what factors do you look at, or should you look at, when deciding to pull the trigger on a bad guy when there's no doubt that he's a deadly threat to your safety (or the safety of other innocent people), BUT, if you take the shot right then and there from where you are, there is some risk that your bullets might also cause harm to innocent persons. How do you evaluate this dilemma? How much application does Cooper's Rule Four of the basic rules of gun safety apply: "Know your target and what is beyond it." This is not a thread for bitching about trigger-happy cops or special rules of civil liability that apply to officers and not private citizens. There's another thread for that in the OFF-TOPIC forum. https://www.georgiapacking.org/thre...ect-6-year-old-dies-from-stray-bullet.273930/ Let's assume the scenario involves ONLY private citizens who don't have badges or special arrest powers, and that the bad guy is presenting a threat that would clearly (100 % certainty) justify using deadly force against him under any of the justifications for use of force found in Georgia law. The ONLY fly in the ointment is the proximity of bystanders, homes, businesses, vehicles, etc. You may not SEE any actual people behind the bad guy, either. But what if there are houses and businesses? Can you assume, and should you assume, that people are inside?